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puma slides

 
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puma slides
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Erica Evan



Dołączył: 28 Kwi 2020
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The estimated demographic history supports the puma australia interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.The puma ( Puma concolor Linnaeus, 1771) is a large felid that ranges throughout the Americas, exhibiting the broadest latitudinal distribution of any terrestrial mammal ( Nowak, 1999 ). Pumas have remarkable dispersal capabilities ( Maehr et al. , 2002 ; Beier et al. , 2003 ) and successfully occupy a diverse array of habitats, illustrating their potential to adapt to the breadth of environmental conditions occurring across the continent, from tropical forests and marshes to dry scrubland and cold Andean or Patagonian biomes ( Redford and Eisenberg, 1992 ; Nowak, 1999 ).

Fossil evidence indicates that pumas were already present in North America 0.4 million puma shoes years ago (MYA) ( Kurtén and Anderson, 1980 ). In parallel, molecular data ( Johnson et al. , 2006 ) have led to an estimate of its divergence from the sister-species P. yagouaroundi of 4.17 MYA (C.I.: 3.16 6.01MYA), suggesting a much longer history as a puma suede distinct evolutionary lineage. The speciation event that separated these lineages may have occurred in North or South America, with the molecular dating estimate supporting the former, as it tends to predate the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI) (ca. 2.5 3.5 MYA) and the implied colonization of South America by any felid ( Woodburne, 2010 ; Eizirik, 2012 ). However, since the credibility interval of this estimate slightly overlaps the timing of the GABI, this issue is still not fully settled.

Interestingly, Barnett et al. (2005) provided molecular evidence indicating that the extinct puma womens shoes North American felid Miracinonyx trumani is the puma's closest relative, with a divergence time estimated at 3.19 MYA. This finding would support the hypothesis of a North American origin for the puma, with subsequent colonization of South America by this species, in parallel with that of the jaguarundi.

In addition, the genetic diversity within South America was found to be larger than in Central and North America, suggesting that pumas from the latter subcontinent actually derive from a recent re-colonization event, following extinction in North America in the Late Pleistocene (ca. 10,000 12,000 years ago).Within the mtDNA, the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 ( ND5 ) gene has been successfully used in phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies of felids and other carnivores ( e.g. Culver et al. , 2000 ; Trinca et al. , 2012 ). In a previous study focusing on pumas ( Culver et al. , 2000 ), three mtDNA segments were employed ( ND5 , 16S and ATP8 ).

Of these, ND5 showed the highest polymorphic content in this species, based on a segment spanning puma mens shoes 318 bp. A new primer set for this gene was designed specifically for carnivores ( Trigo et al. , 2008 ), amplifying a longer fragment ( ca. 750 bp) and exhibiting successful amplification across several families ( e.g. Felidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Procyonidae [unpublished data]).In the present study we employ this longer ND5 segment to investigate the evolutionary history of P. concolor , with emphasis on South American populations, which were previously found to harbor high levels of diversity and inferred to have played a key role in the historical demography [img]http://www.simplypotterheads.com/images/lose/puma mens shoes-967raz.jpg[/img] of this species ( Culver et al. , 2000 ).
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